Aulacorhynchus prasinus prasinus - Emerald Toucanet

Harris, H. 1934. Condor: 36(2): 59-.
An Appreciation of Donald Ryder Dickey In this memorium to Donald Dickey a bibliography of his work is printed. The bibliography includes Geographic Variation in Aulacorhynchus prasinus (Gould), Ibis, January, 1930, pp. 48-66. In that article Dickey recognizes four distinct races, of which A. p. stenorhabdu (p. 52), Volcan Santa Ana, Salvador, and A. p. volcanius (p. 53), Volcan San Miguel, are described as new. (Auk: 47(April): 290)

No Author Listed. 1940. Wilson Bulletin: 52(4): 283-287.
Ornithological Literature This review of onithological journals notes the publication of New Birds from Southern Mexico, Brodkorb, Pierce, Auk, 57, No. 4, Oct., 1940: 542-549. It is in New Birds from Southern Mexico that Brodkorb introduces the subspecies A. p. chiapensis.

Wagner, H. O. 1944. Wilson Bulletin: 56(2): 65-76.
Notes on the Life History of the Emerald Toucanet This carefully written field study by German ornithologist, Helmuth Wagner, makes numerous first-hand observations worthy of note. Habitat: On the Atlantic side of the Sierra Madre de Chiapas near the border of Guatemala in the Mexican state of Chiapas, the Emerald Toucanet spends the rainy season from May to October in the virgin forests found at an altitude of 1,000 meters, or 3,280 feet. During the remaining months of the year, when the rains stop at this altitude, and when the Emerald Toucanet is breeding and rearing young, it migrates to an altitude of 1,800 meters, or 5,800 feet, where it finds its preferred cool and humid habitat. Breeding: The Emerald Toucanet is sexually mature at age two. Wagner's observations suggest roosting holes are not used as nesting holes, the former being generally more exposed. While rearing, females were in the nest for intervals of 20 to 30, and left the nest for intervals of the same duration. Males were not observed brooding or rearing, and were instead found together in small male flocks elsewhere in the breeding range. Nestlings: Wagner asserts the interesting hypothesis that the flat protruding lower mandible of the nestling, so unlike a mature toucanet, may be an adaptation which enables it to better receive food from its mother. Population: From Wagner's rough figures, it would appear population density was at that time no greater than two per square kilometre. Calls: Here Wagner claims the Emerald Toucanet capable of mimicking the calls of the Mexican Trogon (Trogon mexicanus), the Quetzal (Pharomachrus mocinno), the Azure-hooded Jay (Cyanolyca mitrata), the Jalapa Trogon (Trogon collaris), and the Lesson's Motmot (Momotus momota lessonii). Food: Though Wagner fails to specifically name the Emerald's favourite fruit, he does describe it as a "blue berry that grows on low bushes on the highest peaks". Bill Function: Wagner rejects the notion that the toucan bill evolved to better pick fruit, and he well makes comparison to the trogon, a broad billed frugivore, to support his position. Instead, Wagner follows Van Tyne who he quotes as having said, "... the bill of the toucan is not a special correlation of structure to function ...". Further, Wagner separates himself from the field of speculators by independently suggesting that the toucan's exaggerated bill evolved as "a secondary sexual character, originally present in the male only...".

Skutch, A. F. 1944. Wilson Bulletin: 56(3): 133-151.
Life History of the Blue-Throated Toucanet A broad comparative understanding of neotropical birds, a thorough knowledge of all relevant ornithological literature, a pioneering style of long-term field study, and a talent for prose make everything written by Alexander Skutch significant to the ornithologist and enjoyable to anyone.

No Author Listed. 1950. Journal of Field Ornithology: 21(3): 116-138.
Recent Literature

Davis, L. I. 1952. Condor: 54(6): 345-355.
Winter Bird Census at Xilitla, Sam Luis Potosi, Mexico

Stresemann, E. 1954. Condor: 56(2): 86-92.
Ferdinand Deppe's Travels in Mexico, 1824-1829

Edwards, E. P. and R. B. Lea. 1955. Condor: 57(1): 31-54.
Birds of the Monserrate Area, Chiapas, Mexico

Hartman, F. A. 1955. Condor: 57(4): 221-238.
Heart Weight in Birds

Edwards, E. P. and R. E. Tashian. 1959. Condor: 61(5): 325-337.
Avifauna of the Catemaco Basin of Southern Veracruz, Mexico

Skutch, A. F. 1962. Wilson Bulletin: 74(2): 115-152.
The Constancy of Incubation

Land, H. C. 1963. Condor: 65(1): 49-65.
A Collection of Birds from the Caribbean Lowlands of Guatemala

Land, H. C. 1963. Wilson Bulletin: 75(2): 199-200.
A Tropical Feeding Tree

Phillips, A. R. and W. Rook. 1965. Condor: 67(1): 3-5.
A New Race of the Spotted Nightingale-Thrush from Oaxaca, Mexico

Wetmore, A. 1968. Wilson Bulletin: 80(3): .
Additions to the List of Birds Recorded from Colombia

Skutch, A. F. 1971. Auk: 88(2): 381-396.
Life History of the Keel-Billed Toucan

George, W. G. and C. L. Casler. 1972. Auk: 89(2): 245-262.
Subalular Apterium in Birds

Leck, C. F. 1972. Auk: 89(4): 842-850.
The Impact of Some North American Migrants at Fruiting Trees in Panama

O'neill, J. P. and A. L. Gardner. 1974. Auk: 91(4): 700-704.
Rediscovery of Aulacorhynchus Prasinus Dimidiatus (Ridgway)

Munves, J. 1975. Auk: 92(2): 307-321.
Birds of a Highland Clearing in Cundinamarca, Colombia

Snow, B. K. 1977. Auk: 94(4): 623-645.
Territorial Behavior and Courtship of the Male Three-Wattled Bellbird

Skutch, A. F. and J. W. Fitzpatrick. 1980. Condor: 82(1): 31-42.
Arils As Food of Tropical American Birds

Ridgely, R. S. and S. J. C. Gaulin. 1980. Condor: 82(4): 379-391.
The Birds of Finca Merenberg, Huila Department, Colombia

Wheelwright, N. T. 1983. Auk: 100(2): 286-301.
Fruits and the Ecology of Resplendent Quetzals

Riley, C. M. 1986. Wilson Bulletin: 98(4): 585-588.
Observations on the Breeding Biology of Emerald Toucanets in Costa Rica

Catan, G. 1988. Condor: 90(1): 100-106.
Food Habits and Social Organization of Acorn Woodpeckers in Colombia

Parkes, K. C. 1988. Wilson Bulletin: 100(4): 650-658.
Colored Plates in the Wilson Bulletin, 1963 Through 1987

Binford, L. C. 1990. Wilson Bulletin: 102(1): 150-154.
The Location of the Mexican Locality, Valle Real

A, M. M. and N. J. Schmitt. 1991. Wilson Bulletin: 103(3): 506-509.
Nests and Eggs of Some Costa Rican Birds

S, A. G. 1992. Condor: 94(1): 29-39.
Altitudinal Distribution of Birds in the Sierra Madre Del Sur, Guerrero, Mexico

Remsen, J. V., Jr., M. A. Hyde and A. Chapman. 1993. Condor: 95(1): 178-192.
The Diets of Neotropical Trogons, Motmots, Barbets and Toucans

Remsen, J. V., Jr. and D. A. Good. 1996. Auk: 113(2): 381-398.
Misuse of Data from Mist-Net Captures to Assess Relative Abundance in Bird Populations

Komar, O. 1998. Wilson Bulletin: 110(4): 511-533.
Avian Diversity in El Salvador

No Author Listed. 1999. Auk: 116(1): 284-297.